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From a process standpoint, the most important column internals are the liquid distributors. A liquid distributor is required at all locations in the column where an external liquid stream is introduced. In addition to providing a uniform liquid distribution pattern to the top of the packed bed, the distributor must provide sufficient gas passage area to avoid a high-pressure drop or liquid entrainment. The liquid distributor should have a high turndown ratio and be resistant to fouling.
The table listed below gives some conventional distributors.

 

Orifice ladder
liquid distributor

Spray nozzle
liquid distributor

Orifice pan
liquid distributor

Weir orifice
liquid distributor

Orifice trough
liquid distributor

Weir trough
liquid distributor

Drive force

pressure

pressure

gravity

gravity

gravity

gravity

Distribute capacity

middle

Low to middle

high

high

middle

middle

Load range

low

low

middle

middle

middle

high

Liquid load (m3/m2.h)

0.25~1.5

Wide range

Wide range

Wide range

Wide range

Wide range

Diameter (m)

> 0.45

random

random
normal < 1.2

random
normal > 1.2

random

random

Resistant of fouling

high

Low to middle

high

middle

low

low

Gas resistance

low

low

high

Low to middle

high

high

Levelness requirement

no

no

yes

yes

yes

yes

Effect on corrosion

high

low

high

high

low

low

Effect on thickness of liquid

no

no

yes

yes

yes

yes

Liquid entrainment

yes

yes

no

no

no

no

Weight

low

low

high

middle

middle

middle

 

Orifice ladder liquid distributor

 

Φ3800 Orifice pan liquid collect and redistributor

Orifice pan liquid distributor

Orifice pan liquid distributor

Orifice trough liquid distributor

 
 
 
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